Friday, August 25, 2017

Princess Diana memorial cricket Lords 1998

No automatic alt text available.






http://www.espncricinfo.com/series/15926/scorecard/640027/Marylebone-Cricket-Club-vs-Rest-of-the-World-XI--





Sunday, July 9, 2017

Constructor Chaining



/*
 * Constructor Chaining is a technique of calling another constructor from one constructor.
 * this() is used to call same class constructor where as super() is used to call super class constructor
 *
 */

 class ConstructorChaining {

public ConstructorChaining() {
System.out.println("Default constructor");
}

public ConstructorChaining(String str) {
this();
System.out.println(" constructor with single arg");
}

public ConstructorChaining(String str, int num) {
this("GAC");
System.out.println(" constructor with 2 args");
}

public ConstructorChaining(int num1, int num2, int num3) {
this("GAC", 2);
System.out.println(" constructor with 3 args");
}

public static void main(String args[]) {
ConstructorChaining obj = new ConstructorChaining(4, 8, 33);
}
}

Friday, July 7, 2017

Constructor Overloading



// Constructor Overloading

public class Test1 {
private String name;

public Test1() {
System.out.println("Inside the default constructor");
}

public Test1(int i) {
System.out.println("Inside the single parameter constructor with int value");
}

public Test1(String str) {
System.out.println("Inside the single parameter constructor with string object");
}

public Test1(int i, int j) {
System.out.println("Inside the double  parameter constructor with int");
}

public static void main (String args []){
Test1 t1 = new Test1();
Test1 t2 = new Test1(5);
Test1 t3 = new Test1(5,4);
Test1 t4 = new Test1("str");


}

}

Tuesday, October 18, 2016

Interface Default Methods in Java 8 [Resources to Follow]



More details : https://dzone.com/articles/interface-default-methods-java

Excellent Article from : https://muhammadkhojaye.blogspot.com/2014/03/interface-default-methods-in-java-8.html

Java 8 introduces “Default Method” or (Defender methods) new feature, which allows developer to add new methods to the interfaces without breaking the existing implementation of these interface. It provides flexibility to allow interface define implementation which will use as default in the situation where a concrete class fails to provide an implementation for that method.
Let consider small example to understand how it works:
?
public interface oldInterface {
    public void existingMethod();
        default public void newDefaultMethod() {
        System.out.println("New default method"
              " is added in interface");
    }
}
The following class will compile successfully in Java JDK 8,?
public class oldInterfaceImpl implements oldInterface {
    public void existingMethod() {
        // existing implementation is here…
    }
}
If you create an instance of oldInterfaceImpl:?
oldInterfaceImpl obj = new oldInterfaceImpl ();
// print “New default method add in interface”
obj.newDefaultMethod();

Why Defaut Method?

Reengineering an existing JDK framework is always very complex. Modify one interface in JDK framework breaks all classes that extends the interface which means that adding any new method could break millions of lines of code. Therefore, default methods have introduced as a mechanism to extending interfaces in a backward compatible way.
Default methods can be provided to an interface without affecting implementing classes as it includes an implementation. If each added method in an interface defined with implementation then no implementing class is affected. An implementing class can override the default implementation provided by the interface.
For Java 8, the JDK collections have been extended and forEach method is added to the entire collection (which work in conjunction with lambdas). With conventional way, the code looks like below,
?
public interface Iterable<T> {
    public void forEach(Consumer<? super T> consumer);
}
Since this result each implementing class with compile errors therefore, a default method added with a required implementation in order that the existing implementation should not be changed.
The Iterable interface with the Default method is below,
?
public interface Iterable<T> {
public default void forEach(Consumer<? super T> consumer) {
    for (T t : this) {
        consumer.accept(t);
    }
}
}
The same mechanism has been used to add Stream in JDK interface without breaking the implementing classes.

When to Use Default Method Over Abstract Classes

Abstract classes versus interfaces in Java 8

After introducing Default Method, it seems that interfaces and abstract classes are same. However, they are still different concept in Java 8.
Abstract class can define constructor. They are more structured and can have a state associated with them. While in contrast, default method can be implemented only in the terms of invoking other interface methods, with no reference to a particular implementation's state. Hence, both use for different purposes and choosing between two really depends on the scenario context.

Default Method and Multiple Inheritance Ambiguity Problems

Since java class can implement multiple interfaces and each interface can define default method with same method signature, therefore, the inherited methods can conflict with each other.
Consider below example,
?
public interface InterfaceA { 
    default void defaultMethod(){ 
        System.out.println("Interface A default method"); 
    } 
}
public interface InterfaceB {
    default void defaultMethod(){
        System.out.println("Interface B default method");
    }
}
public class Impl implements InterfaceA, InterfaceB  {
}
The above code will fail to compile with the following error,
java: class Impl inherits unrelated defaults for defaultMethod() from types InterfaceA and InterfaceB
In order to fix this class, we need to provide default method implementation:
?
public class Impl implements InterfaceA, InterfaceB {
    public void defaultMethod(){
    }
}
Further, if we want to invoke default implementation provided by any of super interface rather than our own implementation, we can do so as follows,
?
public class Impl implements InterfaceA, InterfaceB {
    public void defaultMethod(){
        // existing code here..
        InterfaceA.super.defaultMethod();
    }
}
We can choose any default implementation or both as part of our new method.

Difference Between Default Method and Regular Method

Default Method is different from the regular method in the sense that default method comes with default modifier. Additionally, methods in classes can use and modify method arguments as well as the fields of their class but default method on the other hand, can only access its arguments as interfaces do not have any state.
In summary, Default methods enable to add new functionality to existing interfaces without breaking older implementation of these interfaces.
When we extend an interface that contains a default method, we can perform following,
  • Not override the default method and will inherit the default method.
  • Override the default method similar to other methods we override in subclass..
  • Redeclare default method as abstract, which force subclass to override it.